Halloween Desktop Background
Halloween: an evolving American ritual of consumption:
Halloween is a little-studied holiday of consumption, which in several important aspects is a mirror image of another important holiday of consumption in the USA – Christmas. At the modern American Christmas celebration, adults wear costumes (from Santa Claus) and extort good behavior from children with threats of deduction of remuneration for durable goods (Belk 1987, 1989). In modern Halloween celebrations, American children wear costumes (often “evil” creatures) and extort adult treats from non-durable goods with the threat of property destruction. In Christmas rituals, an extended family is found on a feast day (on healthy dishes) with a traditionally religious orientation. In Halloween rituals, children leave home and family to join other children on an evening of raffles to get unhealthy sweets in a clearly non-religious atmosphere.
In Christmas rituals, gifts are exchanged in the family, and everyone is recognized personally and with love. In Halloween rituals, non-family members give presents to masked anonymous children, which pose an indefinite threat. What explains this opposite symbolism? What is Halloween? How is this changing? What are halloween costumes and icon painting? And what do the modern holidays of this holiday say about consumer behavior.
In this article, I try to answer such questions using a combination of secondary data and qualitative and quantitative primary data. The document is under development and is based on primary data collected over the past two Holoweens holidays in a million-strong city in the western United States. Participant observation was used to learn about Halloween practices for children and adults, including fairs, parades, costume contests, tricks or treats, parties, dancing and racing for costume runners. In-depth interviews were conducted with both children and adults, and a written application was sent to university students.
Observations and interviews were recorded both orally (field notes, magazines, tape recording) and visually (photograph, video). Various secondary sources were consulted in the popular literature and literature of various social sciences. Relevant topics in these literature include fears, nightmares, games, games, children’s stories, role socialization, rites of passage, limit, mysticism, magic, masks, costumes, jewelry, legends, myths, fairy tales, horror films, plays, dramas. , Halloween Stories, American Holidays, a ritual calendar and related holidays in different cultures.
In addition to using multiple sources of evidence, a deliberate attempt was made to avoid a priori theorizing and constantly switch between primary and secondary sources as new interpretative topics emerged. Starting with observing participants and participating in Halloween celebrations, the project has evolved through an interactive and continuous process of formulating, applying, modifying, and expanding the theory (see Belk, Wallendorf, and Sherry 1989).
What began as a simple investigation into the appeal, purchase, and consumption of sweets by children soon became an investigation into the secrets of a rich and evolving social ritual involving children, adults, and the community.
Certain aspects of Halloween can be traced to the surviving remains even in the prehistoric Celtic holidays of Samhain (options: Saman, Samayn, Semin, Samuinn). Winkler and Winkler (1970) suggest that Samhain celebrated the harvest and was influenced by Egyptian and Babylonian harvest festivals, but Fraser (1959; original 1890) argues that Samhain was instead a pastoral celebration marking the time the flocks returned from pasture to their winter stalls . In addition to the seasonal harvest festival or animal husbandry, Samhain was a Celtic New Year’s Eve and Day of the Dead, in which Celtic ancestors participated (Ward, 1981).
Samhain was the Lord of the Dead (the term also means “end of summer”), and the sacrifices made to him included human sacrifices by the priests of Celt Druid (Myers 1972). Surviving this Halloween practice in Europe has replaced black cats that have been burned in wicker cages that would contain criminals or captives before the Romans forbade human casualties in 61 CE. (Linton and Linton 1950). On the night of Samhain, the ghosts of the dead appeared and visited their old houses. Witches and hobgoblins with more orgiastic, harmful or evil intentions also roamed the earth.
Lights were lit, partly to scare away these ghosts and witches with their cleansing flame (Myers 1972). These associations with spirits, the dead, debauchery and evil remain tied to modern Halloween celebrations.